Cervical cancer is the cancer arising from cervix, the lowermost part of uterus (womb) in females. More specifically, it is the malignant tumour of cervix. It starts when there is an abnormal growth of cells in the cervix and these cells have the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
The cervical cancer treatment cost in India starts from $6000 to 7000. It is 30 to 40 percent less than what it costs in any other country, including the US, UK, Singapore, Canada and the UAE with same quality of medical services and same standard of medical staffs.
Cervical cancer is fourth most common cancer type in the world. In addition, it is the fourth most common cause of death from cancer in women around the world. In 2012, an estimated 528000 cases of cervical cancer cases were reported, which accounts for nearly eight percent of the total cancer cases and deaths resulting out of it.
Cervical Cancer: Symptoms
The symptoms of cervical cancer remains common in all the patients suffering from this condition, unless they are suffering from some other disease as well. Some of the common cervical cancer symptoms include:
- Vaginal bleeding: Women with cervical cancer may experience abnormal vaginal bleeding. This includes bleeding between periods, after sexual intercourse or post-menopausal bleeding.
- Unusual vaginal discharge: It consist of watery, pink, foul smelling and thick discharge that may contain mucus.
- Pelvic pain: Pain during intercourse or at other times may be a sign of abnormal cervix.
- Pain during urination: Bladder pain or pain during urination can be a symptom of advanced cervical cancer. It usually occurs when the cancer has spread to the bladder.
Cervical Cancer: Causes
There are many reasons that can contribute to cervical cancer. However, a majority of cases result because of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. The following are some of the leading cervical cancer causes:
- HPV infection: Infection with HPV is the most common cause for cervical cancer. But women with HPV infections may or may not get affected by cervical cancer during their lifetime. One can contract HPV infection when sexual intimacy with multiple partners is maintained or with a person who has been in a relationship with multiple partners.
- Smoking: A woman who smokes actively or passively doubles her risk of cervical cancer.
- Oral contraceptives: Women, who have been taking oral contraceptive for long term, typically more than five years, are at an increased risk of cervical cancer.
- Multiple pregnancies: A history of multiple pregnancies during the reproductive lifetime of a woman also increases the risk of cervical cancer.
Cervical Cancer: Types
There are different types of cervical cancer. The two common types include:
- Squamous cell carcinomas: This type of cervical cancer arises from the squamous epithelium that covers visible part of cervix that is made up of thin and flat cells.
- Adenocarcenimas: This type of cervical cancer arises from glandular lining of the endocervical canal that consists of glandular cells that line the upper portion of cervix.
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Cervical Cancer Treatment in India
India is becoming one of the best medical tourism destinations in the world. India offers complete and specialized medical facilities, especially to cater medical tourists from around the world. It has some of the best hospitals in top cities, especially for cancer treatment using world class facilities.
India boasts its brigade of highly qualified surgeons and doctors who have international training and experience in providing treatment with the help of evolving technology, fulfilling international medical quality standards at the same time. India offers affordable cervical cancer treatment for patients around the world.
Cervical Cancer Diagnosis
Some of the common tests conducted for cervical cancer diagnosis before carrying out cervical cancer treatment in India include:
- Pap smear test: This test is used to detect the abnormal cells in the cervix, including cancer cells and cells that show changes that increase the risk of cervical cancer. This is done by putting an instrument called speculum inside the vagina and scraping the cervix with small brush. The scrapped cells are put under a microscope for examination.
- Liquid based cytology: This is a way of preparing cervical samples for examinations in the laboratory. It is similar to Pap smear, as a device named spatula is used to brush off the cell from the neck of the womb.
- Hybrid Capture II test: This is a DNA-based test that provides information about various types of HPV virus. It also determines if cervical cancer treatment is required or not.
- Colposcopy: This process uses a light and low-powered microscope to take a clear and bigger look at the cervix to determine any abnormality.
- Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure (LEEP): In this process, an electrode is put inside the cervix to remove abnormal cells from the cervix and endocervical canal.
- Magnetic Resource Imaging (MRI): This test uses magnetism to get pictures of the organs. This process is painless, harmless and very good at imaging the tissues of pelvis where cancer resides.
- Computerized Tomography (CT) scan: This process involves the use of X-rays that gives cross-sectional pictures of different organs and other structures, including any tumours in the body.
- Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scan: This test is used to check whether the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
Cervical Cancer Treatment Procedures in India
Typically, cervical cancer treatment in India involves a combination of the following procedures:
It may include various types of surgical methods, including:
- Conization: It is used to diagnose as well as treat a cervical condition.
- Hysterectomy: It is a procedure in which uterus is removed through surgery, to avoid cancer from spreading there.
- Radial Hysterectomy: This procedure removes the uterus and much of the surrounding tissues including lymph nodes and upper part of vagina.
- Cryosurgery: It is also known as cry therapy and involves the use of an instrument that is used to freeze and destroy abnormal tissues.
- Laser surgery: This method uses a laser beam (a narrow beam of intense light) to remove the cancer.
- Pelvic exenteration: It is used to remove the lower colon, rectum and bladder. During this procedure, the cervix, vagina, ovaries and nearby lymph nodes are also removed.
This procedure is basically used for larger tumours, mostly in the cases where cancer is spread beyond the cervix and is not curable with surgery alone. Radiotherapy is often used after surgery to ensure cancer does not come back. It is also given in combination with chemotherapy.
This method involved treatment of cancer with the help of anti-cancer drugs. It aims to destroy the cancer cells while doing least damage to the normal cells. The drugs also stop the cancer cell from growing any further.
CERVICAL CANCER Hospitals IN INDIA
- Medanta The Medicity
- SevenHills Hospital
- Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals
- Max Super Specialty Hospital Saket
- Dharamshila Cancer Hospital
- BGS Global Hospital, Bangalore
- Nanavati Super Speciality Hospital
Cervical Cancer Treatment Cost in India
The cost of cervical cancer treatment in India depends on the type of hospital chosen, the duration of stay in the hospital, the complexities involved, doctor’s fees and the stage of cancer. Despite all these factors, the cost of cervical cancer treatment in even the best Indian hospital is much less than any other hospital around the world, with same quality of medical services.